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Section 3: Effective Feedback


Essentials of Effective Feedback

I-C-F provides a framework for establishing a purpose for coaching/mentoring conversations, but mentor teachers must also carefully consider both the content and delivery of the feedback. A trusting relationship with a mentee is essential in order for feedback to be received. Classroom teachers routinely give feedback to their students, but less frequently to adults. Fortunately, the key tenets of ‘effective’ feedback are universal. While not an exhaustive list, in general, feedback should be:



Further Reading

Bearden, K. (2018). Talk to me: Find the right words to inspire, encourage, and get things done. Dave Burgess Consulting, Incorporated.

Stenger, M. (2014, Aug 6). Five research-based tips for providing students with meaningful feedback. Edutopia

Wiggins, G. (2012). Seven keys to effective feedback. Educational Leadership, 70(1), 10-16.

  • Grounded in observational data; specific and data/evidence-based

  • Carefully planned and prepared prior to feedback conversations if possible

  • Provided in a timely manner

  • Goal-oriented and should focus on 1-2 tangible elements at a time. 

  • Presented carefully and empathetically

  • Framed in such a way as to begin and end with positive comments. 

  • Inclusive of the mentor and mentees and reflections

  • Consistent, varied and ongoing

Using Positive and Corrective Feedback

to Improve Student Outcomes

High Leverage Practice 8 & 22

Knowing the essentials of effective feedback is not enough to have a positive impact on teacher practice. Coaching, however, has the potential to improve teachers’ use of specific positive feedback. As mentors are helping new teachers or teacher candidates develop this skill, it is important to apply the use of positive and corrective feedback through an ongoing coaching model.

Key Principles

  1. Feedback should be specific, positive, and delivered contingently. 

  2. Create a positive learning environment for feedback to be well received.

  3. Use corrective feedback to “teach,” not “punish.”

  4. Plan for and monitor personal use of feedback.

  5. Combine feedback with other High Leverage Practices (HLPs).

  6. Build in professional development opportunities to include performance feedback.


Examples and Non-Examples

Comparing examples and non-examples of effective feedback is an excellent way to develop a solid understanding of what feedback should look like. Think about your own practice as you explore these examples and non-examples.

  • Positive Behavior Specific (Academic)

    • Example: “Yes, a quadrilateral has four sides.”

    • Non-Example: “Yes, that is right.”

  • Positive Behavior Specific (Behavioral)

    • Example: “Great job walking in a nice quiet line.”

    • Non-Example: “Good job, class.”

  • Corrective Behavior Specific (Academic)

    • Example: “Instead of working on yesterday’s assignment, please try today’s practice problems.”

    • Non-Example: “Put yesterday’s work away.”

  • Corrective Behavior Specific (Behavioral)

    • Example: “You may already know this material, but please sit quietly so others have a chance to learn too.”

    • Non-Example: “Stop talking.”

Use this checklist to consider how you can utilize positive feedback effectively to support your mentee.

Resources to Support HLP 8 & 22

Highlight of HLP 8 & 22

Rubric for Implementation 

Practice-Based Learning Opportunity

Putting It All Together


Watch the sample video again of feedback conversation.  As you watch, consider the following questions:

  1. What connections can you make to the I-C-F framework? 

  2. What essentials of effective feedback did you see in action?

  3. What might you change about this feedback session? 


Pause & Reflect

Directions: Pause and reflect on what you learned. Use the questions below to guide your thinking and record your thoughts in your Module 4 Companion Guide.

Read the short article "The Art of Feedback" here. As you read, consider the following questions.

  • Which of the six suggestions do you think is most important?

  • Which of the six suggestions is the biggest challenge for you?

  • What is a seventh suggestion that you would add to this list?

Then click "Next" below to finish Module 4.

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